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August 27, 2006, 7:51 PM CT

Gut Tissue A Major Reservoir For HIV

Gut Tissue A Major Reservoir For HIV
FINDINGS: UCLA researchers have found the human gut to be a major reservoir harboring the HIV virus -- holding almost twice as much as a person's blood. In addition, the virus stored in the gut does not decay or reduce over time, as is also the case with blood-related reservoirs. It is well-known that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and lymph nodes are principal reservoirs harboring the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The role of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) in this setting, however, had not been properly evaluated until now. Researchers from the Center for Prevention Research and the UCLA AIDS Institute at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, in collaboration with the AIDS Research Alliance in West Hollywood, Calif., collaborated on this research.



IMPACT:
The findings further confirm that HIV remains persistent and elusive, and that eradicating the virus using current anti-retroviral therapy alone is not enough. Despite using fully suppressive therapy, patients in the study still had evidence of persistent, steady levels of HIV in gut tissue as well as in the blood.........

Posted by: Edwin      Permalink         Source


August 27, 2006, 7:48 PM CT

Gene nfluence for alcoholism

Gene nfluence for alcoholism
Not only do both genes and environment have an impact on the development of alcohol-use disorders, but now scientists have observed that certain genes may influence scientists' ability to interpret other genes' effects. One variant of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene the ADH1B genotype appears to be able to influence level of response (LR) to alcohol among non-Asians.

Results are reported in the recent issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research

There are at least two known groups of gene mutations that can effect how individuals metabolize alcohol, explained Marc A. Schuckit, director of the Alcohol Research Center, Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, professor of psychiatry at the University of California, San Diego, and co- author of the study. One group of mutations is in an enzyme called aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and the other group is in the ADH enzyme. These mutations predominantly observed among Asians tend to impart protection from alcohol-use disorders because they cause a larger, more intense LR to alcohol, including facial flushing.

"The question was raised," continued Schuckit, "do the ADH mutations affect LR to alcohol in Caucasians? There are some fairly consistent reports in the literature that some Caucasians do have a bit of facial flushing with alcohol similar to what you see in Asians. Accordingly, if you can find this same increased response to alcohol in the roughly 10 percent of the Caucasian population that carries these ADH gene mutations, the next question is: 'how does that effect our ability to study people's LR to alcohol as it might be influenced by another gene?'".........

Posted by: Edwin      Permalink         Source


August 27, 2006, 7:21 PM CT

Making An Alcoholic Sleep Better

Making An Alcoholic Sleep Better
Alcoholics generally don't sleep well. Nor does abstinence improve the situation much. In fact, sleep difficulties during alcohol abstinence may be responsible for a relapse to alcoholism as individuals attempt to self medicate their sleeping problems. New findings show that an alcoholism-treatment drug called acamprosate, widely used in Europe, can alleviate post-withdrawal sleep disturbances by influencing glutamatergic transmission.

Results are reported in the recent issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research.

"During chronic and excessive use of alcohol, short periods of deep sleep become interrupted by brief periods of restlessness," said Luc Staner, director of the Sleep Laboratory of the Centre Hospitalier de Rouffach. "This may also be accompanied by sleep terrors, sleepwalking and exacerbation of loud snoring or sleep apnea. During the day, alcohol intake can exacerbate sleepiness, which disrupts performance and contributes to accidents even when an individual is not significantly intoxicated." Staner is also a researcher at FORENAP, an organization that specializes in early drug development and research in neuroscience, located in Rouffach, France.

Sleep dysfunction does not necessarily improve with abstinence from alcohol, added Staner, who is also the corresponding author for the study. "Sleep is initially characterized by occasional nights of very little sleep and nightmares, followed by either progressive improvement or, very often, long-lasting sleep difficulties," he said. "If the latter, consequences may include decreased attention, vigilance, energy and concentration; increase in fatigue and malaise, irritability, etc. These often protracted symptoms lead some patients to resume drinking in an attempt to self-medicate their sleep problems. Probably for this reason, persistent post-withdrawal sleep complaints have been shown to predict relapse to alcoholism."........

Posted by: Edwin      Permalink         Source


August 27, 2006, 9:18 AM CT

Freenigma Adds Privacy To Mail

Freenigma Adds Privacy To Mail
freenigma adds privacy technology (with strong e-mail encryption) to your favourite webmail service.

Today, all your e-mails are stored and sent around the planet in plain text. And today you have no control over what happens to your private or business e-mail conversations and you can't prevent others from reading them. Get your privacy back! Encrypt your private and business e-mails to protect your freedom, privacy and your business secrets.

Actually, we support not only Google Mail, but all large webmail services: encrypt your e-mails in Google Mail, Yahoo! Mail and Hotmail and others. Exchange encrypted content with your friends and business partners. One freenigma account can be used for all supported webmail systems!........

Posted by: Edwin      Permalink         Source


August 27, 2006, 8:57 AM CT

Giant praying mantis

Giant praying mantis
A giant praying mantis invaded Old Town Square in Prague today at 8:15 pm to the delight of hundreds of human onlookers, and a few horses too. The humanoid invaders, on extended springy legs, drove their giant insect through the Old Town amid fireballs and deep heavy funk grooves.

The police stood by, trying to direct the bug to more peaceful environs, as a number of of the grumpier tourists nearby were rather put off their expensive goulash and roasted duck.........

Posted by: Edwin      Permalink         Source


August 27, 2006, 8:24 AM CT

Business Card Menger Sponge

Business Card Menger Sponge
Menger's Sponge - named for its inventor Karl Menger and sometimes wrongly called Sierpinski's Sponge - was the first three dimensional fractal that mathematicians became aware of. In 1995 Dr Jeannine Mosely, a software engineer, set out to build a level 3 Menger Sponge from business cards. After 9 years of effort, involving hundreds of folders all over America, the Business Card Menger Sponge was completed. The resulting object is comprised of 66,048 cards folded into 8000 interlinked sub-cubes, with the entire surface paneled to reveal the Level 2 and Level 3 fractal iterations.

Recipe for a Menger Sponge: Take a cube, divide it into 27 (3 x 3 x 3) smaller cubes of the same size; now remove the cube in the center of each face plus the cube at the center of the whole. You are left with a structure consisting of the eight small corner cubes plus twelve small edge cubes holding them together. Now, imagine repeating this process on each of these remaining 20 cubes. Repeat again. And again, ad infinitum..... To make a Level 3 sponge, stop after 3 iterations.........

Posted by: Edwin      Permalink         Source


August 27, 2006, 8:14 AM CT

The Most Incredible Knife

The Most Incredible Knife
The Most Incredible Knife.

Make sure you have a big pocket.

1. 2.5" 60% Serrated locking blade.

2. Nail file, nail cleaner.

3. Corkscrew.

4. Adjustable pliers with wire crimper and cutter.

5. Removable screwdriver bit adapter.

6. 2.5" Blade for Official World Scout Knife.

7. Spring-loaded, locking needle-nose pliers with wire cutter.

8. Removable screwdriver bit holder.

9. Phillips head screwdriver bit 0.

10. Phillips head screwdriver bit 1.

11. Phillips head screwdriver bit 2.

12. Flat head screwdriver bit 0.5 mm x 3.5 mm.

13. Flat head screwdriver bit 0.6 mm x 4.0 mm.

14. Flat head screwdriver bit 1.0 mm x 6.5 mm.........

Posted by: Edwin      Permalink         Source


August 27, 2006, 8:01 AM CT

Armor Of God PJs

Armor Of God PJs
What are the Armor Of God PJ's? The Armor Of God PJ's were inspired by a mother reading Ephesians 6:10-18 every night to her daughter to give her a safe and secure feeling in the dark. As they read the scriptures, they put on each spiritual and powerful piece of the Armor of God to keep them safe and peaceful while they slept. At that moment,.

God gave me the idea how wonderful it would be if all children could have the opportunity to put on a pair of pajamas that symbolized the Armor of God for the same purpose.....that with their belief in Jesus and His protection they will feel safe and secure during the night as they sleep. As they dress in the mornings, they should replace them with the spiritual Armor of God to protect them in their daily activities.........

Posted by: Edwin      Permalink         Source


August 25, 2006, 5:05 AM CT

Insect Predation Sheds Light On Food Web Recovery

Insect Predation Sheds Light On Food Web Recovery Fossil leaves in rock layer with shovel handle at Mexican Hat, Wyoming.
Credit: Peter Wilf, Penn State
The recovery of biodiversity after the end-Cretaceous mass extinction was much more chaotic than previously thought, according to paleontologists. New fossil evidence shows that at certain times and places, plant and insect diversity were severely out of balance, not linked as they are today. The extinction took place 65.5 million years ago. Labeled the K-T extinction, it marks the beginning of the Cenozoic Era and the Paleocene Epoch.

"The K-T caused major extinction among North American plants and insects. The Western Interior U.S. was a dead zone for plants and plant-insect food webs," said Dr. Peter Wilf, assistant professor of geosciences and the David and Lucile Packard Fellow. "We know that right after the extinction, for 800,000 years, there was very low insect predation and plant diversity. We know that 9 million years afterwards, there was renewed diversity in both plants and insects. What happened in the 8 million years in between?

"In modern forests, insect diversity tracks plant populations. If there are few plants, there are few insects, and that is what we expected to see and mostly found throughout the 10-million-year Paleocene. However, we looked extremely hard to test this conventional wisdom and found some shocking exceptions that have given us new ideas about how food webs recover from mass extinction," he added.........

Posted by: Edwin      Permalink         Source


August 24, 2006, 10:30 PM CT

Waterborne infectious diseases could soon be history

Waterborne infectious diseases could soon be history
Waterborne infectious diseases, which bring death and illness to millions of people around the world, could largely be consigned to history by 2015 if global health partnerships integrate their programmes, as per Alan Fenwick writing in today's Science.

Professor Fenwick, from Imperial College London, argues that up to seven neglected tropical diseases including river blindness could be brought under control, with infection by some eliminated entirely, if existing programmes increase their coverage.

In Africa some 500 million people need therapy to control diseases such as disfiguring elephantiasis (lymphatic filariasis), river blindness (onchocerciasis), schistosomiasis, intestinal worms and the blinding eye infection trachoma.

The donation of drugs by pharmaceutical companies, together with financial donations from foundations, is already having a sizeable impact, with numbers given therapy for these diseases increasing from virtually zero in 1986 to between 20 and 80 million individuals annually in 2006.

More funding is mandatory to convince decision makers of the benefits of therapy, to improve health education material and to deliver the drugs to those who need them. The cost can be as low as 25 pence per person per year, and the impact would be rapid.........

Posted by: Edwin      Permalink         Source


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